Wine and Hard Cider Analyses

Note: New York Wine & Grape Foundation is able to subsidize the costs of analyses for New York bonded wineries that hold a winery license. This subsidy will be based on your membership status with NYWGF, and your invoice will come directly from them. 

Wine and Cider Analyses

  • Purpose: Snapshot of wine chemistry: pH, titratable acidity (at pH 8.2), fermentable sugar, malic acid, lactic acid, volatile acidity, alcohol
    NOTE: These measurements are accurate enough to inform most winemaking decisions, but should not be used to determine alcoholic or ML fermentation completion or for labeling/regulatory compliance.
  • Technique: OenoFoss (FTIR)
  • Price: $36.75
  • Purpose: Acetic acid is the most abundant volatile acid. At large concentrations it suggests microbial contamination, and is considered a sensory flaw. While acetic acid is the major component of volatile acidity (VA), volatile acidity as measured through distillation may include other compounds and will therefore not necessarily match a direct measurement of acetic acid.
  • Technique: Enzymatic
    • Price: $42


  • Analysis Notes: Legal limits for Volatile Acidity in wine:
    Red Table Wine 1.2 g/L
    White Table Wine 1.5 g/L 
    27 CFR 2.21(a)(1)(iv)
    NOTE: In some wines, sensory threshold may be as low as 0.5 g/L
  • Purpose: A measure of hydrogen ion concentration, pH affects microbial stability, concentration of molecular SO2, tartrate stability, and the perception of wine structure.
  • Technique: pH meter
  • Analysis Notes: Due to the buffering capacity of wine, pH is not always directly correlated with wine TA. Wine pH generally ranges from pH 3.0 to pH 4.2.
  • Price: $10.50
  • Purpose: Tartaric and malic are the primary acids found in grape wine that has not undergone malolactic fermentation (MLF). During MLF, malic acid is converted into lactic acid. Some acetic acid is formed during fermentation, but excess amounts can be an indicator of microbial spoilage.
  • Technique: Enzymatic (citric, malic, lactic, acetic)
    • Price- $42 per acid


  • Purpose: A measure of the acids in wine that can be neutralized with a base. Expressed in g/L tartaric acid equivalents (wine) malic acid equivalents (cider).
  • Technique: autotitration (8.2 endpoint)
  • Analysis Notes: Titratable acidity most closely corresponds to the sensory perception of acid strength; it should not to be confused with total acidity.
    • Price: $21
  • Purpose: A measure of ethanol content by volume. Wine and cider must follow TTB guidelines regarding alcohol labeling. Ciders seeking a label approval from New York State are required to have a certified ethanol measurement, and must choose option 1 below.
    • Price- $36.75
  • Purpose: Visually clear bottle samples are filtered and plated on selective media to assess sterility.
  • Technique: Filter plating and reverse-phase microscopy
  • Analysis NotesTurn around on this analysis is about 8 days, as plating takes about 7 days to show results.
  • Price: $39.00
  • Purpose: Measure amount of dissolved carbon dioxide gas in a liquid.
  • Analysis NotesBottle must be glass with a crown cap closure, minimum 375 milliliters.
  • Price: $24.15
  • Purpose: Tartaric acid is unstable at lower temperatures, and combines with free potassium to form potassium bitartrite crystals that precipitate out of solution, altering pH and TA.
  • Technique: Conductivity test
  • Price: $31.50
  • Purpose: Tests residual sugars, total acidity and total polyphenol levels, particularly for ciders wishing to use the New York Cider Association scale.
  • Technique: Enzymatic and automatic titration
  • Price: $78.75
  • Purpose: The presence of residual proteins in wine can result in undesirable haze, formed from proteins that denature at the high temperatures that may occur during storage or transportation.
  • Technique: Hotbox test and TCA acid hydrolysis test
  • Price: $31.50
  • Purpose: Wines are assessed by a panel of three trained enologists to make preliminary judgments about sensory flaws or varietal typicity.
  • Analysis Notes: Definitive flaw analysis often requires further testing.
  • Informal Analysis. Technique: Rapid sensory evaluation by wine lab staff
    • Price: $10.50
  • Formal Analysis. Technique: Sensory evaluation by at least three enology lab members (or other qualified experts) under controlled conditions
    • Price: $63
  • Purpose: Potassium sorbate is added to wines containing residual sugar to prevent refermentation by inhibiting yeast activity.
  • Technique: Distillation/ spectrophotometer
  • Analysis Notes: Potassium sorbate additions will be converted to ethyl sorbate over the course of about 18 months post bottling. Both compounds impact wine aroma.
    • Price: $73.50
  • Purpose: Quantification of the fermentable sugar (glucose and fructose).
  • Technique: Enzymatic assay
    • Price: $47.25
  • Purpose: Sulfur dioxide is used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant in wine production.
  • Technique: Flow injection- automated aeration/ oxidation
  • Analysis Notes: Legal limit = 350 mg/L; concentrations above 10 mg/L (ppm) require the label to include the warning "contains sulfites." TTB CFR 4.22(b)(1)
    • Price: $21
  • Purpose: Sulfur dioxide is used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant in wine production.
  • Technique: Flow injection- automated aeration/ oxidation
  • Analysis Notes: Legal limit = 350 mg/L; concentrations above 10 mg/L (ppm) require the label to include the warning "contains sulfites." TTB CFR 4.22(b)(1)
    • Price: $21
  • Purpose: The concentration of dissolved analytes can affect wine stability. Excess calcium and potassium can promote tartrate precipitation, and copper and iron favor oxidation.
  • Technique: Atomic absorbance
  • Analysis NotesTurn around on this analysis is about one week.
  • The amount of residual copper in wine cannot exceed 0.5 ppm. TTB CFR 24.246
    • Price: $47.25 per element
  • Purpose: Troubleshooting or production planning beyond that related to specific analyses
  • Analysis Notes: Pam Raes, Chris Gerling, and other enology extension staff are available for consultation, but please note that we are not able to provide general product development assistance.
    • Price: $157.50 per hour
  • Purpose: As a condition of entry for imported wine, many countries require specific chemical analyses completed by a person certified by the exporting government. We are equipped to perform these analyses and potentially certify/ notarize results. Note: We do not have paperwork for each country on file, nor do we always know which analyses will be needed. Please work with your importing agent to find the correct forms or requirements.
  • Analysis Notes: Analyses will depend on importing country requirements.
    • Standard: Price: $52.50
      • (S02, Ethanol, ph, TA, sugar, VA) Please allow ten (10) business days for standard export analysis.
    • Non-Standard: Price: $157.50
      • Please allow fifteen (15) business days for Non-Standard export analysis.