Module 3 – Soil Amendments

Slide 7 - Chemical Soil Amendments

  • Doran, G., Sheridan, F., Delappe, N., O’Hare, C., Anderson, W., Corbett-Feeney, G., & Cormican, M. (2005). Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou contamination of commercially grown mushrooms. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 51(1), 73–76.

Slide 8 - Human Waste & Biosolids

Slide 9 - Pre-Consumer Vegetative Waste

Slide 10 - Non-Manure Based Soil Amendments of Animal Origin

Slide 11 - The Value of Manure

Slide 12 - Pathogens in Animal Manure

  • Buchko, S.J., Holley, R.A., Olson, W.O., Gannon, V.P.J., & Veira, D.M. (2000). The effect of different grain diets on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by steers. J Food Prot, 63(11), 1467–1474.
  • LeJeune, J., & Kauffman, M.D. (2005). Effect of sand and sawdust bedding materials on the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in dairy cows. App Environ Micro, 71(1), 326–330.
  • Doyle, M.P., & Erickson, M.C. (2006). Reducing the Carriage of Foodborne Pathogens in Livestock and Poultry. Poultry Science, 85(6), 960–973.
  • Langholz, J.A., & Jay-Russell, M.T. (2013). Potential role of wildlife in pathogenic contamination of fresh produce.  Hum Wildl Interact, 7(1), 140–157.

Slide 13 - Untreated Soil Amendments

  • Jiang, X., Morgan, J., & Doyle, M.P. (2002). Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Manure‐Amended Soil. App Environ Micro, 68(5), 2605–2609.
  • Ingram, D., & Millner, P. (2007). Factors affecting compost tea as a potential source of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on fresh produce. J Food Prot, 70(4), 828–834.
  • Kim, J., Shepherd, J., Marion, W., & Jiang, X. (2009). Evaluating the Effect of Environmental Factors on Pathogen Regrowth in Compost Extract. Micro Ecology, 58(3), 498–508.

Slide 15 - Treated Soil Amendments

  • Renter, D.G., & Sargeant, J.M. (2002). Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 epidemiology and ecology in bovine production environments. Animal Health Research Reviews, 3(02), 83–94.
  • Weil, J.D., Beelman, R.B., Cutter, C.N., & LaBorde, L.F. (2013). Inactivation of Human Pathogens During Phase II Composting of Manure-Based Mushroom Growth Substrate. J Food Prot, 76(8), 1393–1400.
  • Jiang, X., & Shepherd, M. (2009). The Role of Manure and Compost in Produce Safety. Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce, 143.
  • Brinton, W.F., Storms, P., & Blewett, T.C. (2009). Occurrence and Levels of Fecal Indicators and Pathogenic Bacteria in Market‐Ready Recycled Organic Matter Composts. J Food Prot, 72(2), 332–339.
  • Eamens, G.J., Dorahy, C.J., Muirhead, L., Enman, B., Pengelly, P., Barchia, I.M., Gonsalves, J.R., & Cooper, K. (2011). Bacterial survival studies to assess the efficacy of static pile composting and above ground burial for disposal of bovine carcasses. J Appl Micro, 110(6), 1402–1413.

Slide 16 - Composting Options

Slide 17 - Reducing Risks During Application

  • Harris, L.J., Berry, E.D., Blessington, T., Erickson, M., Jay-Russel, l.M., Jiang, X., Killinger, K., Michel, F.C., Millner, P., Schneider, K., Sharma, M., Suslow, T.V., Wang, L., & Worobo, R.W. (2013). A framework for developing research protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production that pertain to the application of untreated soil amendments of animal origin on land used to grow produce that may be consumed raw. J Food Prot, 76(6), 1062–1084.

Slide 18 - Minimum Application Intervals

Slide 20 - Storage Area Recommendations

  • Strawn, L.K., Fortes, E.D., Bihn, E.A., Nightingale, K.K., Gröhn, Y.T., Worobo, R.W., Wiedmann, M., & Bergholz, P.W. (2013). Landscape and meteorological factors affecting prevalence of three food-borne pathogens in fruit and vegetable farms. Appl Environ Micro, 79(2), 588–600.