IPM Practices for Small Grains
Managing Winter Wheat Pest Problems in New York
Several important disease, insect, and weed problems can affect profitability of winter wheat production in New York. The most important pests are armyworm, cereal leaf beetle, Hessian fly, aphids, seedling blights, smuts and bunts, leaf and glume spots, leaf rust, powdery mildew, scab, yellow dwarf, wheat spindle streak mosaic, and weeds. Integrated pest management (IPM) methods can be used to help minimize the impact of these pests.
Pre- and postseason weed surveys are recommended to identify current and future weed control needs. Early-season weed monitoring should be conducted while wheat is at the emergence through tillering stages (GS 5, 4 to 8 inches tall with 12 or more leaves) and while annual broadleaf weeds are less than 1.5 inches. Postseason weed surveys can be conducted at or after time of harvest.
Disease assessments should be made from late April through early June (GS 3 to 5) for wheat spindle streak mosaic, yellow dwarf, and eyespot. Foliar fungal diseases (powdery mildew, leaf spots, and leaf rust) should be assessed from late April through mid-June (GS 6 to 10.5, stem elongation: first node through heading stage).
Insect pests should be checked while monitoring for disease problems. An additional field monitoring should be conducted during the heading growth stages (10.1 to 11) to check for diseases of grain heads and the presence of armyworm or fall armyworm.
See the tables below for suggestions on IPM activities and common pests by crop growth stage and seasonal occurrence.
|Planting to Freeze Dormancy|
|Weed survey, stand count, establishment problems, seed diseases/damping off (Pythium. Phytophtora/Rhizoctonia), aphids, Hessian fly, watch for “occasional” pests/problems||Planter problems, poor seed germination, poor soil conditions, vertebrate damage (birds, rodents), herbicide injury, cereal leaf beetle|
|Early Spring (break dormancy to tillering)|
|Stand count, overwintering problems, weed survey, virus diseases (soil borne viruses, wheat spindle steak mosaic, yellow dwarf), eyespot, powdery mildew, white grub, wireworm, aphids, cutworms, armyworm, cereal leaf beetles, vertebrate damage (geese), watch for “occasional”pests/problems||Snow mold, herbicide injury, hail, frost/freeze, drought|
|Stem extension (jointing to boot stage)|
|Leaf spots (Septoria nodorum blotch, tan spot, powdery mildew, leaf rust), cereal leaf beetles, watch for “occasional” pests/problems||Herbicide injury, hail, frost/freeze, drought, armyworm, aphids, cutworms, fall armyworm, grasshoppers|
|Flowering to Grain Ripening|
|Root and crown rots, cutworms, armyworm, Fusarium head blight/scab, viruses, bunt, smut, leaf spots (powdery mildew, Stagnospora nodorum blotch, Tan spot, leaf rust), cereal leaf beetles, watch for “occasional” pests/problems||Wind, excessive nitrogen, lodging, nutrient deficiency, stripe rust, armyworm, stalk borer, European corn borer, fall armyworm, wheat stem sawfly, grasshoppers, white grub, wireworm, flea beetles|
|Weeds||Weed Survey||October, March-May|
|Diseases||Monitor closely for virus diseases||April-June|
|Monitor closely for fungal diseases||May-June|
|Insects||aphids/Hessian fly||September-October; late April-early July|
|cereal leaf beetle||early April-early July|
|armyworm/fall armyworm||late April-July|
|European corn borer, grasshoppers||mid May-July|
- Small Grains IPM Scouting Procedures - a reference guide from the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program for general scouting activities within small grains.
- BioControl Bytes - a monthly blog from the New York State IPM Program's BioControl Specialist
- NYS IPM videos on YouTube
- New York State IPM Program